PT PMA vs. No PT PMA: Which is the Best Path for Foreign Property Investment in Bali?

img Sri Utami | April 20, 2024

Hello! I’m Utami, a marketing intern at Bukit Vista, and I’m excited to share insights on a vital topic for foreign investors considering the Bali real estate market: Should you invest with PT PMA or without? This guide explores the critical regulations and compares the investment frameworks of PT PMA (Penanaman Modal Asing) versus non-PT PMA setups, aimed at helping investors make informed decisions. 

At Bukit Vista, we’ve partnered with ILA Global Consulting to navigate Bali’s complex legal landscape, which has culminated in the development of a property tax calculator designed for investors. This tool is crucial for those interested in making informed decisions about foreign property investment, helping demystify the financial implications of each investment type.

foreign property investment

Table of Contents

Foreign Property Investment with VS without PT PMA

Investing with PT PMA

Foreign property investment in Indonesia, also known as Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA), refers to the business activities conducted by foreign investors within the Republic of Indonesia. This can be either through wholly foreign-owned ventures or joint ventures with domestic investors. A foreign investor may be an individual, a corporation, or a government entity looking to invest within Indonesia’s borders.

Before investing in Indonesia, here are several things that foreigners must know:

  • Legal Entity: A Foreign Investment Company (PMA) must be established as a Limited Liability Company (LLC) or Perseroan Terbatas (PT) according to Indonesian law and must be domiciled within Indonesia.
  • Business Scale: PMA entities are restricted to engaging in large business activities only. They are explicitly prohibited from participating in micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) within Indonesia.
  • Open Business Lines: It’s crucial to verify if the desired business sector is open to foreign investment, open under certain conditions, or completely closed to investment.
  • Minimum Investment: The investment threshold for foreign investors is set above IDR 10 billion, excluding land and building costs per the 5-digit KBLI business sector field per project location.
  • Capital in SEZs: This investment cap is waived for foreign investments in Special Economic Zones (SEZs) focusing on technology-based startup businesses, where the investment can be IDR 10 billion or less.
  • Minimum Paid-up Capital: Foreign investment LLCs must also meet a minimum paid-up capital requirement of IDR 10 billion, subject to adjustments as specified by applicable laws and regulations.
  • Nationality Requirements: Although Indonesian law does not mandate that members of the board of directors of a PT PMA must be Indonesian citizens, practical challenges arise. For instance, tax authorities may require or prefer that the main director be an Indonesian citizen to facilitate easier management, especially in case of legal or tax issues.
  • Residency Status: If foreign nationals are appointed as directors, they are advised to hold a Permanent Stay Permit Card (KITAP), indicating permanent residency in Indonesia. This is crucial to ensure accountability, especially if legal issues arise.

Investing without PT PMA

Foreigners interested in the Indonesian property market have several alternatives to investing without establishing a PT PMA (limited liability company with foreign ownership). One common method is through leasehold agreements, which permit leasing land and properties for durations typically ranging from 25 to 70 years, with renewal options available. These leases can apply to both residential and commercial properties, making them a versatile choice for foreign property investment and long-term residency plans.

Alternatively, foreigners may opt to marry an Indonesian citizen and acquire property in their spouse’s name. This approach requires careful legal planning to safeguard property rights during potential future disputes, such as divorce proceedings. Consulting with legal professionals is essential to ensure all property investments are secured and compliant with Indonesian laws, providing peace of mind while navigating the complexities of foreign property investment in Indonesia.

Comparing PT PMA with Non-PT PMA Investments

Investing in Indonesia’s property market can be approached either with a PT PMA (Penanaman Modal Asing or Foreign Investment Company) or through non-PT PMA avenues. Below is a comparative analysis highlighting key differences:

Factors PT PMA Non-PT PMA
Legal Ownership
Allows direct ownership of property.
Limited to leasehold structures; cannot own property directly.
Tax Benefits
Potential tax advantages in property tax and corporate income.
Typically no direct tax benefits; subject to standard leasehold and income tax rates.
Operational Flexibility
Greater flexibility in business operations and scope within Indonesia.
Restricted to the terms of the leasehold; less freedom in operational scope.
Cost and Setup
Higher initial costs and more complex bureaucratic processes.
Lower upfront costs and simpler entry process, though bound by lease durations.
Investment Security
Provides more robust legal protection under Indonesian investment laws.
Depends on the specific terms of the lease and local legal conditions.
Long-term Potential
Better suited for long-term growth and expansion within Indonesia.
Best for those seeking temporary or medium-term residency without long-term business operations.

Investing in Bali’s property landscape comes with distinct advantages and potential drawbacks, crucial for foreigners to assess in line with their investment horizons and objectives. When buying property in Bali as a foreigner, it’s vital to engage with seasoned legal and financial professionals who can offer tailored advice, ensuring that your property ventures are not only lucrative but also adhere strictly to Indonesian regulatory statutes.

Bukit Vista’s Tax Calculator: Your Investment Tax Guide

foreign property investment

Regulatory Foundations of Bukit Vista's Property Tax Calculator

Bukit Vista’s property tax calculator is meticulously calibrated to align with Indonesian legal standards, incorporating key regulatory baselines to ensure accuracy and compliance. Central to its design are the provisions outlined in the Indonesian Government Regulation No. 1 of 2022, which delineate the financial relationships between the central and regional governments and define tax liabilities for consumer goods and services. These statutes, integral to the calculator’s architecture, encompass a range of business sectors and stipulate precise tax rates, as set forth in regulations like the Badung Regency Regional Regulation No. 15 of 2011 and Government Regulation No. 55 of 2022.

The calculator integrates these intricate tax directives, including criteria for PT PMA companies such as mandatory minimum investment values, and capital requirements. It also factors in tax incentives available within Special Economic Zones, variances in tax rates based on business size and category, as well as nuances in directorial board compositions related to tax identification procedures. By synthesizing these complex regulations, Bukit Vista offers investors and financial advisors a comprehensive property tax calculator, vital for strategizing investments in Bali’s dynamic property landscape.

Watch more about legal regulation for foreign investor:

Bukit Vista's Tax Calculator

Bukit Vista’s property tax calculator employs a comprehensive method to assist investors in understanding their tax obligations in Bali’s real estate market. It allows users to input variables such as nightly rates, annual occupancy, and operational expenses to project annual gross revenues. For personal non-resident taxpayers, it estimates net revenue after local taxes and operational costs are accounted for, and for corporate taxpayers, it further differentiates based on the company’s age, which affects the income tax rate. 

Critical to its functionality are integrated rules, such as a mandatory 10% local tax and eligibility criteria for tax facilities, ensuring that investors have a clear picture of the financial landscape they are entering, whether they are operating within PT PMA structures or pursuing personal investment avenues.

Investing in Bali’s property market can be a rewarding endeavor for foreign property investment, provided they navigate the regulatory environment wisely. As Louis Glickman once aptly put it, “The best investment on Earth is earth,” highlighting the enduring worth and potential of real estate ventures. Understanding the differences between PT PMA and non-PT PMA investments, and utilizing tools like Bukit Vista’s property tax calculator, can lead to better financial planning and investment outcomes.

If you’re considering buying property in Bali as a foreigner, start by exploring your options with a PT PMA, and leverage Bukit Vista’s expertise, as a Bali villa management company to maximize your investment. Visit our website to learn more about our services and how we can help you achieve your property investment goals in Bali.

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